Underemployment Rate (UDR)

Year 1986 1991 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
% 1.70 1.60 1.60 1.10 2.50 2.90 2.80 2.50
Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
% 3 3.50 3.30 2.70 2.40 2.20 1.90 2.30
Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
% 2 1.70 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.40 1.40 1.20

Operational Definitions

The proportion of underemployed persons in the labour force. The criteria for an employed person to be classified as underemployed are: involuntarily working less than 35 hours during the seven days before enumeration; and either (a) has been available for additional work during the seven days before enumeration; or (b) has sought additional work during the thirty days before enumeration. Working short hours is considered as involuntary if it is due to slack work, material shortage, mechanical breakdown and inability to find a full-time job.


All figures are collected from Census and Statistics Department since 1986.
According to C&SD (25Sep2009), starting from the year 2001, annual figures derived from the General Household Survey (GHS) may be different from those in the earlier edition. For the previous edition, the annual figures are compiled based on the average data for the four quarters of the year concerned. Starting from this edition, these statistics are compiled based on data collected in the General Household Survey in January to December each year as well as the mid-year population estimates by District Council district compiled jointly by the Census and Statistics Department and an inter-departmental Working Group on Population Distribution Projections.
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